Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to explore the links between entrepreneurial orientation (EO) and intrapreneurship within the context of small to medium-sized enterprises (SMEs). Design/methodology/approach – This conceptual paper builds on a historical review of the two main currents of the corporate entrepreneurship literature and the distinction established by French scholars between “traditional SMEs” and “miniature large firms”. Findings – The paper summarizes various findings regarding the antecedents of EO and intrapreneurship in SMEs and elaborates a series of testable propositions linking EO to intrapreneurship. Practical implications – The paper posits the existence of different types of SMEs and suggests that the organizational and managerial antecedents of EO differ by type. Originality/value – The paper explores the relation between intrapreneurship and EO, thus connecting two unrelated streams of literature within the field of corporate entrepreneurship.